Thursday, May 15, 2008

Login Without Registration

Go to


and type the URL of the website you want to log into.Examples:-, -

Another (and better) way is changing the user agent of your browser to:Googlebot/2.1+

This is very easy in Mozilla's Firefox. Download and install the User Agent Switcher from
- add the Googlebot user agent.

Friday, May 9, 2008

Strong Password

The passwords are the keys we use to access personal information that we've stored on our computer and in our online accounts.

What makes a strong password?

To an attacker, a strong password should appear to be a random string of characters. The following criteria can help our passwords do so:

Make it lengthy

Each character that we add to our password increases the protection that it provides many times over.

The passwords should be 8 or more characters in length; 14 characters or longer is ideal.

Many systems also support use of the space bar in passwords, so we can create a phrase made of many words (a "pass phrase"). A pass phrase is often easier to remember than a simple password, as well as longer and harder to guess.

Combine letters, numbers, and symbols:

The greater variety of characters that we have in our password, the harder it is to guess. Other important specifics include:
Use words and phrases that are easy for US to remember, but difficult for others to guess.

The easiest way to remember our passwords and pass phrases is to write them down.
Contrary to popular belief, there is nothing wrong with writing passwords down, but they need to be adequately protected in order to remain secure and effective.

In general, passwords written on a piece of paper are more difficult to compromise across the Internet than a password manager, Web site, or other software-based storage tool, such as password managers.

E.g.: Phrase Creates this password
Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water = J&Jwuth2fapow
I spent too much at the fair last night = Is2matfln
I like Cars = IL1k3c@rs

Network Commands

Displays various properties like Accounts, Statistics, etc.

net [parameter]

Net Start:
Starts a service. Used without parameters, net start displays a list of services that are currently operating.

net start [service name]

Net Stop:
Stops a service.


net stop [service name]

Displays NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) protocol statistics, NetBIOS name tables for both the local computer and remote computers, and the NetBIOS name cache. Nbtstat allows a refresh of the NetBIOS name cache and the names registered with Windows Internet Name Service (WINS). Used without parameters, nbtstat displays help.

nbtstat [parameters]

Displays active TCP connections, ports on which the computer is listening, Ethernet statistics, the IP routing table, IPv4 statistics (for the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols), and IPv6 statistics (for the IPv6, ICMPv6, TCP over IPv6, and UDP over IPv6 protocols). Used without parameters, netstat displays active TCP connections.


netstat [parameters]

Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages to the destination with incrementally increasing Time to Live (TTL) field values. The path displayed is the list of near-side router interfaces of the routers in the path between a source host and a destination. The near-side interface is the interface of the router that is closest to the sending host in the path. Used without parameters, tracert displays help.


tracert [parameters]

Displays all current TCP/IP network configuration values and refreshes Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Used without parameters, ipconfig displays the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway for all adapters.

ipconfig [parameters]

Displays and modifies entries in the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache, which contains one or more tables that are used to store IP addresses and their resolved Ethernet or Token Ring physical addresses. There is a separate table for each Ethernet or Token Ring network adapter installed on your computer. Used without parameters, arp displays help.


arp [parameters]

Displays information that you can use to diagnose Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure. Before using this tool, you should be familiar with how DNS works. The Nslookup command-line tool is available only if you have installed the TCP/IP protocol.

nslookup [parameters]

Displays information about a user or users on a specified remote computer (typically a computer running UNIX) that is running the Finger service or daemon. The remote computer specifies the format and output of the user information display. Used without parameters, finger displays help.

finger [parameters]

Verifies IP-level connectivity to another TCP/IP computer by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messages. The receipt of corresponding Echo Reply messages are displayed, along with round-trip times. Ping is the primary TCP/IP command used to troubleshoot connectivity, reachability, and name resolution. Used without parameters, ping displays help.

ping [parameters]

Transfers files to and from a computer running a File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server service such as Internet Information Services. Ftp can be used interactively or in batch mode by processing ASCII text files.

ftp [parameters]

Displays the host name portion of the full computer name of the computer.



Copies files between a Windows XP computer and a system running rshd, the remote shell service (daemon). Windows XP and Windows 2000 do not provide rshd service. Used without parameters, rcp displays help.

rcp [parameters]

Runs commands on remote computers running the Rexec service (daemon). The rexec command authenticates the user name on the remote computer before executing the specified command. Windows XP and Windows 2000 do not provide the Rexec service. Used without parameters, rexec displays help.

rexec [parameters]

Displays and modifies the entries in the local IP routing table. Used without parameters, route displays help.

route [parameters]

Displays the status of a print queue on a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD). Used without parameters, lpq displays command-line help for the lpq command.

lpq [parameters]

Runs commands on remote computers running the RSH service or daemon. Windows XP and Windows 2000 do not provide an RSH service. An RSH service called Rshsvc.exe is provided with the Windows 2000 Server Resource Kit. Used without parameters, rsh displays help.

rsh [parameters]

Sends a file to a computer running Line Printer Daemon (LPD) in preparation for printing. Used without parameters, lpr displays command-line help for the lpr command.

lpr [parameters]

Transfers files to and from a remote computer, typically a computer running UNIX, that is running the Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) service or daemon. Used without parameters, tftp displays help

tftp [parameters]

The telnet commands allow you to communicate with a remote computer that is using the Telnet protocol. You can run telnet without parameters in order to enter the telnet context, indicated by the Telnet prompt (telnet>). From the Telnet prompt, use the following commands to manage a computer running Telnet Client.

telnet [parameter]

The telnet administrative commands.

tlntadmn [parameter]

Malware Codes Glossary


It's a type of Browser Plug-in. ActiveX is a set of technologies from Microsoft that enables interactive content for the World Wide Web. As ActiveX security settings in Internet Explorer can allow web pages to automatically and secretly install ActiveX controls, they can be a significant security threat. ActiveX controls can access files on your hard drive.


A type of Advertising Display Software that delivers advertising content potentially in a manner or context that may be unexpected and unwanted by users. Many adware applications also perform tracking functions, and therefore may also be categorized as Tracking Technologies. Some consumers may want to remove Adware if they object to such tracking, do not wish to see the advertising caused by the program, or are frustrated by its effects on system performance.
On the other hand, some users may wish to keep particular adware programs if their presence subsidizes the cost of a desired product or service or if they provide advertising that is useful or desired, such as ads that are competitive or complementary to what the user is looking at or searching for.

Alternate Data Stream:

An extension to Microsoft's Windows NT File System (NTFS) that provides compatibility with files created using Apple's Hierarchical File System (HFS). Applications must write special code if they want to access and manipulate data stored in an alternate stream. Some applications use these streams to evade detection.


Backdoors are remote administration utilities that open infected machines to external control via the Internet or a local network.


A type of Worm that uses Bluetooth technology as its spreading vector. Bluetooth is a wireless communications technology. See also Worm.

Botnet: Botnet is a term formed from two words â€" Robot and Network. A Bot, sometimes referred to as Zombie, is a computer that has been infected with malware that allows a remote malicious user access to the computer. With that remote access, the malicious user can control and harness the power of all such Bots into a powerful network used for criminal activity. Botnets have been used for sending spam remotely, installing more malware without consent, and other illicit purposes.

Browser Helper Object (BHO):

A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a program that runs automatically every time that the Internet Explorer browser is launched. It is meant to extend the functionality of the browser, but it can also track how you use the Internet. Toolbars are a common form of BHO.

Browser Plug-in:

A software component that interacts with a Web browser to provide capabilities or perform functions not otherwise included in the browser. Typical examples are plug-ins to display specific graphic formats, to play multimedia files or to add toolbars which include search or antiphishing services. Plug-ins can also perform potentially unwanted behaviors such as redirecting search results or monitoring user browsing behavior, connections history, or installing other unwanted software like nuisance or harmful adware.

Types of Browser plug-ins include:

  • ActiveX Controls: Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Browser Helper Object (BHOs): Microsoft Internet Explorer
  • Mozilla Firefox Extensions: Mozilla Firefox


A piece of data that a Web site or a third party that was commissioned or approved by the website â€" saves on users' computers' hard drives and retrieves when the users revisit that Web site. Some cookies may use a unique identifier that links to information such as logon or registration data, online "shopping cart" selections, user preferences, Web sites a user has visited, et cetera. See also Tracking Cookies.

Data Miner:

A Data Miner is a program that can collect information on how you browse and use websites. The collected information can include data gathered from forms you fill and submit. Usually data miners work without your knowledge.


A Dialer is a program which tries to connect to an expensive pay-per-minute phone number using the computer's modem. Most malicious dialers work without your awareness or permission.

Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS):

Attack A means of burdening or effectively shutting down a remote system by bombarding it with traffic from many other computers. DDoS attacks are often launched using the compromised systems of Internet users, often using botnets. An attacker will exploit a vulnerability in one computer system and make it the DDoS master using Remote Control Software. Later, the intruder will use the master system to identify and manage zombies that can perform the attack. Email-Worm A type of Worm that uses E-mail as its spreading vector.
See also Worm.


A utility designed to penetrate remote computers.


A Hoax is a type of chain letter that contains false information, often spreading a false virus warning. Do note that we generally only focus on virus-related hoaxes. We can not evaluate whether non-computer related folklore stories are urban legends or true stories

Hosts File:

The Hosts File is a lot like an address book. When you type an address into your web browser, the address is translated into a numeric IP address. If the address can be found from the Hosts file, your computer will use it. If not, your computer will connect to the DNS service of your Internet Service Provider. Some malware can edit your Hosts file to hijack and redirect a web connection to a completely different site on the Internet/World Wide Web.


A type of Worm that uses Instant Messaging (IM) software as its spreading vector. MSN Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), and Yahoo Messenger are examples of IM applications. See also Worm.


When malware is typed as Intended, it is software that contains bugs or other problems that prevent it from functioning as the author intended. It would have been malware, and future versions still might be, but the current version is defective.


A type of Worm that uses Internet Relay Chat (IRC) as its spreading vector. IRC is a form of real-time Internet chat. It is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums known as channels. See also Worm.


A Joke is a program with annoying or funny functionality, but it is not destructive.


Malware that is encoded as a macro embedded in a document.


Malware is a common name for all kinds of unwanted software such as viruses, worms, trojans and jokes.


A Monitoring Tool can monitor and record all computer activities, including each keystroke you type on the keyboard.

Multipartite Virus:

A Multipartite Virus is a virus composed of several parts. Every part of a multipartite virus needs to be cleaned away, to give assurance of non-infection.


A Network Worm is a program that can replicate itself by sending copies in e-mail messages or over a network.

On-Access Scanner:

Real-time scanner, a background process that provides a constant guard against viruses.

On-Demand Scanner:

An On-Demand Scanner is a virus scanner which is started manually.


A type of Worm that uses Peer-to-peer networking software as its spreading vector. See also Worm.


Pharming (pronounced farming) is a scam technique that is similar to phishing. It is an attempt to steal personal information using false web sites. Pharming attacks seed false information on Internet DNS servers that provide location information. The result is that individuals are directed to web sites to seem to be genuine, but are actually false.


In a computing context, Phishing is an impersonation of a corporation or other trusted institution. The goal of the impersonation is to extract passwords or other sensitive information from the victim. It is a form of criminal activity that utilizes social engineering techniques. Phishing is typically done using e-mail or an instant messaging program. The attempt of the message is to appear to be from an authentic source so that victim will either directly respond, or will open a URL link to a fake web site run by the criminals. Phishing (pronounced fishing) is a scam technique using e-mail that links to false, but genuine looking web sites, most often of Banks, that attempt to steal personal information. The spam bait is used with the odds that it will be ignored by most, because it will be out of context, but with the hope that some will be hooked.

Polymorphic Virus:

A Polymorphic Virus is a virus which changes itself (mutates) as it passes through host files, making disinfection a serious challenge.

Real-Time Scanner:

A Real-Time Scanner is a scanner that operates in the background, allowing a user to continue working at normal speed, with no significant slowing.

Replication Mechanism:

Replication Mechanisms are a mandatory part of every virus and worm. If it doesn't have a replication mechanism, it's by definition not a virus or worm.


Riskware is software that can pose a security risk that is not malicious by its nature. Such software has usefulness that can assist a knowledgeable user, but can also be bundled and used by malicious software. Examples include: FTP servers, IRC clients, Network Sniffers, overeager DRM software, and Remote Administration. Additionally, this category includes software that cannot be included in other malware categories. Some software is not malicious, but does not provide the functionality claimed. If the functionality of software is suspect, it may be added to the riskware category.


A suspect antispyware application that engages in doubious practices such as false positives. Illegal advertisements are sometimes used and trojans are sometimes installed to provide an infection to "clean". Rogue antispyware is often not malicious itself, but it does not provide the functionality claimed. Also known as Scareware.


Rootkits are a technique that allows malware to hide from computer operating systems and from computer users. Rootkit techniques create stealth programs that run at a "lower" level than the user can see with normal software utilities. Malware attempts to use this method to avoid detection by security software.


Spyware is software that performs actions such as creating unsolicited pop-ups, hijacks home/search pages, or redirects browsing results. The term Spyware has been used in two ways: In its narrow sense, Spyware is a term for Tracking Software deployed without adequate notice, consent, or control for the user. In its broader sense, Spyware is used as a synonym for Spyware (narrow) and Other Potentially Unwanted Technologies.

Stealth Virus:

A Stealth Virus is a virus that hides itself by intercepting disk access requests. When an antivirus program tries to read files or boot sectors to find the virus, the stealth virus feeds the antivirus program a clean image of file or boot sector.

Time Bomb:

A Time Bomb is a destructive action triggered at some specific date or time.


Toolbars are add-on applications for Web browser software. They provide additional functionality that is often not included within the browser. Toolbar software can be used for Tracking users' online behavior.

Tracking Cookies:

Tracking Cookies track your web browsing habits. They can collect information about pages and advertisements you have seen or any other activity during browsing. Different websites can share tracking cookies, and each website with the same tracking cookie can read the information and write new information into it. A Tracking Cookie is any cookie used for tracking users' surfing habits. Tracking Cookies are a form of Tracking Technology. They are typically used by advertisers wishing to analyze and manage advertising data, but they may be used to profile and track user activity more closely. However, tracking cookies are simply a text file, and far more limited in capability than executable software installed on users' computers. While installed software can potentially record any data or activity on a computer, cookies are simply a record of visits or activity with a single Website or its affiliated sites. See also Cookie.


A software that monitors user behavior, or gathers information about the user, sometimes including personally identifiable or other sensitive information.


A Trojan or Trojan House is a software application with hidden destructive functionality. It is a program that appears to do one thing but actually does another.


Downloads and installs new malware or adware on the targeted computer.


Used to install other malware on a computer without the computer user's knowledge.


These Trojans function as a proxy server and provide anonymous access to the Internet from infected machines.


This type of Trojan is designed to steal passwords.


A type of Trojan that includes a variety of spy programs and keyloggers.


As you know, a Virus is a computer program that replicates by attaching itself to another object and/or program.


Vulnerabilities open security holes that can allow other applications to connect to the computer system without your authorization or knowledge.


W32 is a Platform designator for 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows. 32-bit refers to the chip architecture that the version of Windows is designed for.


A Worm is a computer program that replicates independently by sending itself to other systems.
Worms are "network viruses", primarily replicating on networks. Usually a worm will execute itself automatically on a remote machine without any extra help from a user. However, there are worms, such as mass-mailer worms, that will not always automatically execute themselves without the help of a user. Multiple vectors of spreading result in malware being typed as "Worm". A single vector of spreading will result in a more specific type. Examples: "Net-Worm", "IM-Worm", or "Bluetooth-Worm".


See 'Botnet'.

MS Excel Shortcuts

  • Apply the outline border to the selected cells. [ Ctrl-Shift-& ]
  • Apply the Date format with the day, month, and year.[ Ctrl-Shift-# ]
  • Apply the Time format with the hour and minute, and AM or PM. [ Ctrl-Shift-@ ]
  • Enter the current time. [ Ctrl-Shift-: ]
  • Enter the current date. [ Ctrl-; ]
  • Hide the selected rows. [ Ctrl-9 ]
  • Hide the selected columns. [ Ctrl-0 ]
  • Alternate between displaying cell values and displaying formulas in the worksheet.[ Ctrl-` ]
  • Display the Find and Replace dialog box, with the Replace tab selected. [ Ctrl-H ]
  • Display the Insert Hyperlink dialog box for new hyperlink. [ Ctrl-K ]
  • Display the Print Preview window. [ Ctrl-F2 ]
  • Switch to the next workbook window. [ Ctrl-F6 ]
  • Display the Macro dialog box to create, run, edit, or delete a macro. [ Alt-F8 ]

Photoshop Shortcut Keys

Main Toolbar:

· m Marquee Tool Move Tool v
· l Lasso Tool Magic Wand Tool w
· j Airbrush Tool Paintbrush Tool b
· s Rubber Stamp Tool History Brush Tool y
· e Eraser Tool Pencil Tool n
· r Blur Tool Dodge Tool o
· p Pen Tool Type Tool t
· u Measure Tool Linear Gradient Tool g
· k Paint Bucket Tool Eyedropper Tool i
· h Hand Tool Zoom Tool z
· d Default foreground and background colors.
· x Switches between foreground and background colors.
· q Switches between standard mode or quick mask mode.
· f Switches between screen modes.
· TAB Hides/Unhides open tools.

File Menu:

· CTRL + N New
· CTRL + O Open
· CTRL + ALT + O Open As
· CTRL + W Close
· CTRL + S Save
· CTRL + SHIFT + S Save As
· CTRL + ALT + S Save a Copy
· CTRL + SHIFT + P Page Setup
· CTRL + P Print
· CTRL + K Preferences > General

Edit Menu:

· CTRL + Z Undo
· CTRL + X Cut
· CTRL + C Copy
· CTRL + SHIFT + C Copy Merged
· CTRL + V Paste
· CTRL + SHIFT + V Paste Into
· CTRL + T Free Transform
· CTRL + SHIFT + T Transform > Again

Image Menu:

· CTRL + L Adjust > Levels
· CTRL + SHIFT + L Adjust > Auto Levels
· CTRL + ALT + SHIFT + L Adjust > Auto Contrast
· CTRL + M Adjust > Curves
· CTRL + B Adjust > Color Balance
· CTRL + U Adjust > Hue/Saturation
· CTRL + SHIFT + U Adjust > Desaturate
· CTRL + I Adjust > Invert
· CTRL + ALT + X Extract

Layer Menu:

· CTRL + SHIFT + N New > Layer
· CTRL + J New > Layer Via Copy
· CTRL + SHIFT + J New > Layer Via Cut
· CTRL + G Group with Previous
· CTRL + SHIFT + G Ungroup
· CTRL + SHIFT + ] Arrange > Bring to Front
· CTRL + ] Arrange > Bring Forward
· CTRL + [ Arrange > Send Backward
· CTRL + SHIFT + [ Arrange > Send to Back
· CTRL + E Merge Down
· CTRL + SHIFT + E Merge Visible

Select Menu:

· CTRL + A All
· CTRL + D Deselect
· CTRL + SHIFT + D Reselect
· CTRL + SHIFT + I Inverse
· CTRL + ALT + D Feather

Filter Menu:

· CTRL + F Last Filter
· CTRL + SHIFT + F Fade

View Menu:

· CTRL + Y Preview > CMYK
· CTRL + SHIFT + Y Gamut Warning
· CTRL + + Zoom In
· CTRL + - Zoom Out
· CTRL + 0 Fit on Screen
· CTRL + SHIFT + 0 Actual Pixels
· CTRL + H Hide Edges
· CTRL + SHIFT + H Hide Path
· CTRL + R Show Rulers
· CTRL + ; Hide Guides
· CTRL + SHIFT + ; Snap To Guides
· CTRL + ALT + ; Lock Guides
· CTRL + " Show Grid
· CTRL + SHIFT + " Snap To Grid

Help Menu:

· F1 Contents

Other Shortcuts:

· Page Up/Down Move view up/down 1 screen.
· SHIFT + Page Up/Down Nudge view up/down.
· CTRL + Page Up/Down Move view left/right 1 screen.
· CTRL + SHIFT + Page Up/Down Nudge screen left/right.
· CTRL + SHIFT + Z Previous History entry.
· CTRL + ALT + Z Next History entry.
· SHIFT + - Previous blending mode.
· SHIFT + + Next blending mode

MS Word Shortcuts

Ctrl + Shift + A
Makes the selection all capitals (toggle)

Alt + Ctrl + 1
Applies Heading 1 style to the selected text

Alt + Ctrl + 2
Applies Heading 2 style to the selected text

Alt + Ctrl + 3
Applies Heading 3 style to the selected text

Ctrl + Shift + L
Applies List Bullet style to the selected text

Alt + F10
Enlarges the application window to full size

Alt + F5
Restores the application window to normal size

Makes the selection bold (toggle)

Ctrl + PgDn
Jump to the next browse object

Ctrl + PgUp
Jump to the previous browse object

Alt + Ctrl + Home
Select the next/prev browse object

Terminates an action

Centers the paragraph between the indents

Changes the case of the letters in the selection

Left arrow
Moves the insertion point to the left one character

Shift + Left arrow
Extends the selection to the left one character

Rt arrow
Moves the insertion point to the right one character

Shift + Rt arrow
Extends the selection to the right one character

Alt + Shift + C
Closes the active window pane (if you are in Normal View and have, for example, the Footnote pane open)

Alt+Drag (or press Ctrl + Shift + F8 and drag, but Alt + Drag is far easier!)
Selects a columnar block of text

Ctrl +Shift+C
Copies the formatting of the selection

Shift + F2
Makes a copy of the selection without using the clipboard (press Return to paste)

Alt + F3
Adds an AutoText entry to the active template

Ctrl+ Backspace
Deletes the previous word without putting it on the Clipboard

Ctrl + Del
Deletes the next word without putting it on the Clipboard

Ctrl+W, Ctrl+F4
Prompts to save the document and then closes the active window. (But doesn't intercept the menu command)

Ctrl + F10
Enlarges the active window to full size

Ctrl + F7
Changes the position of the active window

Ctrl + F5
Restores the window to normal size

Ctrl + F8
Changes the size of the active window

Alt + Ctrl + S
Splits the active window horizontally and then adjusts the split

Alt + Shift + F9
Executes the action associated with macrobutton fields

Ctrl + Shift + D
Double underlines the selection (toggle)

Alt R, G
Groups the selected drawing objects

Alt R, I
Sets up a grid for aligning drawing objects

Alt R, U
Ungroups the selected group of drawing objects

Ctrl+Shift+F5 (Or: Alt I, K)
Brings up the bookmark dialog

Performs a forward delete or removes the selection without putting it on the Clipboard

Copies the selection and puts it on the Clipboard

Cuts the selection and puts it on the Clipboard

Finds the specified text or the specified formatting

F5, Ctrl+G
Jumps to a specified place in the active document

Alt E, K
Allows links to be viewed, updated, opened, or removed

Inserts the Clipboard contents at the insertion point

Alt E, S
Inserts the Clipboard contents as a linked object, embedded object, or other format

Alt + Shift + Backspc
Redoes the last action that was undone

Repeats the last command, or redoes the last action that was undone (unfortunately, doesn't work for as many commands in Word 2000 as in Word 97 and below, but this is still one of Word's most useful shortcuts, if not the most useful)

Finds the specified text or the specified formatting and replaces it

Selects the entire document

Reverses the last action

Alt + PageDn (to select to end of column, use Alt + Shift + PgDn)
Moves to the last cell in the current table column

Extends the selection to the end of the last line of the document

Moves the insertion point to the end of the last line of the document

Moves the insertion point to the end of the current line

Extends the selection to the end of the current line

Moves to the last cell in the current row

Alt + Ctrl + PgDn
Moves the insertion point to the end of the last visible line on the screen

Shift + Alt + Ctrl + PgDn
Extends the selection to the end of the last visible line on the screen

F8 (press Esc to turn off)
Turns on extend selection mode and then expands the selection with the direction keys

Alt + F4 (<9>)
Closes the current document, or if no documents are open, quits Word. Horrible command, as it makes it a long winded business to quit Word. But there's a simple solution - assign Alt+F4 to FileExit instead.

Alt + F4 (Word 97)
Quits Microsoft Word and prompts to save the documents (does intercept the menu item, but not the keyboard shortcut, or the x button. An AutoExit macro is usually a better way of intercepting this).

NOT Ctrl+N!!
Creates a new document or template (brings up the dialog). Note that: Word pretends that Ctrl+N is assigned to FileNew but it isn't, it's assigned to FileNewDefault You can fix this in Word 2000 by assigning Ctrl+N to the FileNewDialog command. In Word 97 the only way to fix it is to create a macro called FileNew (to do this, press Alt + F8, type "FileNew" without the quotes and Click "Create". The macro will automatically contain the code needed to make it work).

Creates a new document based on the Normal template.

Opens an existing document or template

Alt F, U
Changes the page setup of the selected sections

Ctrl + P
Prints the active document (brings up the dialog)

Displays full pages as they will be printed

Alt F, I
Shows the properties of the active document


Alt F, A (or F12)
Saves a copy of the document in a separate file (brings up the dialog)

Activates the Fonts listbox on the formatting toolbar

Activates the Font Size drop-down on the formatting toolbar

Alt + Ctrl + K
Automatically formats a document (or sometimes, automatically screws it up)

Alt O, B
FormatBordersAndSha ding
Changes the borders and shading of the selected paragraphs, table cells, and pictures

Alt O, E
Changes the case of the letters in the selection

Alt O, C
Changes the column format of the selected sections (brings up the dialog)

Alt O, D
Formats the first character of current paragraph as a dropped capital (must select it first)

Brings up the Format + Font dialog

Alt + Shift + R
FormatHeaderFooterL ink
Links the current header/footer to the previous section (but does not intercept the button on the Header Footer toolbar)

Alt O, P
Brings up the Format Paragraph dialog

Alt O, S
Applies, creates, or modifies styles

Alt O, T
Brings up the Format Tabs dialog

Shift + F5
Returns to the previous insertion point (goes back to up to 3 points, then returns to where you started; this is one of the most useful shortcuts of them all. Also useful when opening a document, if you want to g straight to where you were last editing it)

Ctrl + >
Increases the font size of the selection

Ctrl + ]
Increases the font size of the selection by one point

Ctrl + T (or drag the ruler)
Increases the hanging indent

Microsoft Word Help

Shift + F1
Lets you get help on a command or screen region or examine text properties

Ctrl + Shift + H
Makes the selection hidden text (toggle)

Click on it
Connect to a hyperlink's address

Ctrl + M (or drag the ruler)
Moves the left indent to the next tab stop

Alt + Ctrl + M (or Alt I, M)
Inserts a comment

Replaces the name of the AutoText entry with its contents

Alt I, B
Ends a page, column, or section at the insertion point

Alt I, C
Inserts a caption above or below a selected object

Ctrl + Shift + Return
Inserts a column break at the insertion point

Alt + Shift + D
Inserts a date field

Alt + Ctrl + D
Inserts an endnote reference at the insertion point without displaying the dialog

Alt I, F
Inserts a field in the active document

Inserts an empty field with the enclosing field characters

Alt I, L
Inserts the text of another file into the active document

Alt I, N
Inserts a footnote or endnote reference at the insertion point

Alt + Ctrl + F
Inserts a footnote reference at the insertion point without displaying the dialog

Ctrl + K
Insert Hyperlink

Alt I, D
InsertIndexAndTable s
Inserts an index or a table of contents, figures, or authorities into the document

Alt + Ctrl + L
Inserts a ListNum Field

Alt + Shift + F
Brings up a dialog to insert a mail merge field at the insertion point. (It does not intercept the button on the Mail merge. toolbar)

Ctrl + Return
Inserts a page break at the insertion point

Alt + Shift + P
Inserts a page number field

Ctrl + Shift + F3
Empties the spike AutoText entry and inserts all of its contents into the document

Alt + Shift + T
Inserts a time field

Ctrl + I
Makes the selection italic (toggle)

Ctrl + J
Aligns the paragraph at both the left and the right indent

Ctrl + L
Aligns the paragraph at the left indent

Down arrow
Moves the insertion point down one line

Shift + down arrow
Extends the selection down one line

Up arrow
Moves the insertion point up one line

Shift + up arrow
Extends the selection up one line

Ctrl + F11
Locks the selected fields to prevent updating

Alt + Shift + K
Checks for errors in a mail merge

MailMergeEditDataSo urce
Lets you edit a mail merge data source

Alt + Shift + N
Collects the results of the mail merge in a document

Alt Shift + M
Sends the results of the mail merge to the printer

Alt + Shift + I
Marks the text you want to include in the table of authorities

Alt + Shift + X
Marks the text you want to include in the index

Alt + Shift + O
MarkTableOfContents Entry
Inserts a TC field (but it is far better to use Heading Styles to generate your Table of Contents instead)

Alt or F10
Makes the menu bar active

Alt + Shift + F11
MicrosoftScriptEdit or
Starts or switches to Microsoft Development Environment application, allowing you to view the HTML/XML source code that would be behind the document if it were in ..htm format (or that is behind it if it already is in .htm format).

Alt + Ctrl + F1
Execute the Microsoft System Info application

Moves the selection to a specified location without using the clipboard (press Return to execute the more)

Moves to the next table cell

Moves to the next field

Alt + F7
Find next spelling error

Alt + down arrow
Moves to the next object on the page

Ctrl + F6
Switches to the next document window, equivalent to selecting a document from the Window menu.

Applies the Normal style

Ctrl + 0
Sets or removes extra spacing above the selected paragraph

Switches to another window pane in Normal View (for instance, if you have if you have a Footnotes pane open in Normal view and want to switch to the main document and back without closing the pane).

Alt + _
Collapses an Outline in Outline View by one level

Alt+Shift+rt arrow
Demotes the selected paragraphs one heading level

Alt + +
Expands an Outline in Outline View by one level

Alt+Shift+down arrow
Moves the selection below the next item in the outline

Alt+Shift+up arrow
Moves the selection above the previous item in the outline

Alt+Shift+left arrow
Promotes the selected paragraphs one heading level

Alt + Shift + L
OutlineShowFirstLin e
Toggles between showing the first line of each paragraph only or showing all of the body text in the outline

Toggles the typing mode between replacing and inserting

Moves the insertion point and document display to the next screen of text

Shift+ PgDn
Extends the selection and changes the document display to the next screen of text

Moves the insertion point and document display to the previous screen of text

Shift + PgUp
Extends the selection and changes the document display to the previous screen of text

Ctrl + down arrow
Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph

Shift + Ctrl + down arrow
Extends the selection to the beginning of the next paragraph

Ctrl + up arrow
Moves the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph

Shift + Ctrl + up arrow
Extends the selection to the beginning of the previous paragraph

Applies the previously copied formatting to selection

Shift + Tab
Moves to the previous table cell

Shift + F11
Moves to the previous field

Alt + up arrow
Moves to the previous object on the page

Ctrl + Shift + F6
Switches back to the previous document window

Repeats Go To or Find to find the next occurrence

Makes the selection the default character format of the applied style

Makes the selection the default paragraph format of the applied style

Ctrl +R
Aligns the paragraph at the right indent

Ctrl + *
Shows/hides all nonprinting characters

Alt + Shift + A
Displays all of the heading levels and the body text in Outline View

101 Run XP Commands

Nearly all of the Run Commands Correspond to a particular Control Panel Item or a Utility, Tool or Task that can be accessed through Windows. There are, however, tools and utilities that I bet you never knew you had that can be accessed through the Run feature. The main reason most people don't use the Run feature is because they don't know the Commands. So, to solve that problem, I decided to put together the following listing, which lists 101 Run Commands and what they correspond too.

Go to Start Button ===>> Run & try this below commands >>

  • Accessibility Controls access.cpl

  • Add Hardware Wizard hdwwiz.cpl

  • Add/Remove Programs appwiz.cpl

  • Administrative Tools control.exe admintools

  • Automatic Updates wuaucpl.cpl

  • Bluetooth Transfer Wizard fsquirt

  • Calculator calc

  • Certificate Manager certmgr.msc

  • Character Map charmap

  • Check Disk Utility chkdsk

  • Clipboard Viewer clipbrd

  • Command Prompt cmd

  • Component Services dcomcnfg

  • Computer Management compmgmt.msc

  • Date and Time Properties timedate.cpl

  • DDE Shares ddeshare

  • Device Manager devmgmt.msc

  • Direct X Control Panel (if installed)* directx.cpl

  • Direct X Troubleshooter dxdiag

  • Disk Cleanup Utility cleanmgr

  • Disk Defragment dfrg.msc

  • Disk Management diskmgmt.msc

  • Disk Partition Manager diskpart

  • Display Properties control.exe desktop

  • Display Properties desk.cpl

  • Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected) control.exe color

  • Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility drwtsn32

  • Driver Verifier Utility verifier

  • Event Viewer eventvwr.msc

  • File Signature Verification Tool sigverif

  • Findfast findfast.cpl

  • Folders Properties control.exe folders

  • Fonts control.exe fonts

  • Fonts Folder fonts

  • Free Cell Card Game freecell

  • Game Controllers joy.cpl

  • Group Policy Editor (XP Prof) gpedit.msc

  • Hearts Card Game mshearts

  • Iexpress Wizard iexpress

  • Indexing Service ciadv.msc

  • Internet Properties inetcpl.cpl

  • Java Control Panel (if installed) jpicpl32.cpl

  • Java Control Panel (if installed) javaws

  • Keyboard Properties control.exe keyboard

  • Local Security Settings secpol.msc

  • Local Users and Groups lusrmgr.msc

  • Logs You Out Of Windows logoff

  • Mcft Chat winchat

  • Minesweeper Game winmine

  • Mouse Properties control.exe mouse

  • Mouse Properties main.cpl

  • Network Connections control.exe netconnections

  • Network Connections ncpa.cpl

  • Network Setup Wizard netsetup.cpl

  • Nview Desktop Manager (if installed) nvtuicpl.cpl

  • Object Packager packager

  • ODBC Data Source Administrator odbccp32.cpl

  • On Screen Keyboard osk

  • Opens AC3 Filter (if installed) ac3filter.cpl

  • Password Properties password.cpl

  • Performance Monitor perfmon.msc

  • Performance Monitor perfmon

  • Phone and Modem Options telephon.cpl

  • Power Configuration powercfg.cpl

  • Printers and Faxes control.exe printers

  • Printers Folder printers

  • Private Character Editor eudcedit

  • Quicktime (If Installed) QuickTime.cpl

  • Regional Settings intl.cpl

  • Registry Editor regedit

  • Registry Editor regedit32

  • Removable Storage ntmsmgr.msc

  • Removable Storage Operator Requests ntmsoprq.msc

  • Resultant Set of Policy rsop.msc

  • Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof) rsop.msc

  • Scanners and Cameras sticpl.cpl

  • Scheduled Tasks control.exe schedtasks

  • Security Center wscui.cpl

  • Services services.msc

  • Shared Folders fsmgmt.msc

  • Shuts Down Windows shutdown

  • Sounds and Audio mmsys.cpl

  • Spider Solitare Card Game spider

  • SQL Client Configuration cliconfg

  • System Configuration Editor sysedit

  • System Configuration Utility msconfig

  • System File Checker Utility sfc

  • System Properties sysdm.cpl

  • Task Manager taskmgr

  • Telnet Client telnet

  • User Account Management nusrmgr.cpl

  • Utility Manager utilman

  • Windows Firewall firewall.cpl

  • Windows Magnifier magnify

  • Windows Management Infrastructure wmimgmt.msc

  • Windows System Security Tool syskey

  • Windows Update Launches wupdmgr

  • Windows XP Tour Wizard tourstart

  • Wordpad write

Add-ons for IE

Mozilla Firefox is the most popular browser in terms of extensions and Add-ons and this is the reason why its the most preferred browser among bloggers. But Internet Explorer users, need not worry as IE too have some good add-ons to customize the features. Here is the list of top 8 useful and popular add-ons for Internet Explorer.

1. IE7Pro: IE7Pro is an add-on for IE 7 which adds lots of features and extras to make your IE easier, more useful, secure and customizable. IE7Pro includes Tabbed Browsing Management, AD Blocker, Flash Block, Super Drag Drop, Crash Recovery, Proxy Switcher, Mouse Gesture, Tab History Browser, Inline Search, User Agent Switcher, Webpage Capturer, Greasemonkey like User Scripts platform, User Plug-ins and many more power packed features. You can customize not just internet Explorer, but even your favorite web site according to your need and taste using IE7Pro.

2. IE Spell: IESpell is a add-on for Internet Explorer v6 and v7. It checks the spelling of almost any text that you enter in IE, whether it be Web-based email, blog entries, forums, dairies and so on. The add-on also lets you look up the meaning of a word in your choice of several online dictionaries. This add-on is especially useful for bloggers composing and publishing posts through IE. Firefox has an in-build spell checker.

3. Inline Search: Inline Search is an add-on which allows you to easily find words or phrases within a web page. This is similar to the Firefox’s search behavior which searches for the word as you type. The keyboard shortcut for search is CTRL+F, which brings up a toolbox in the status bar.

4. Google Preview IE: GooglePreviewIE is a toolbar for Internet Explorer which inserts thumbnail images of web sites directly into both Google and Yahoo search results. It also features a pop-up blocker and enhanced search functionality, the toolbar lets you easily preview the look and feel of a site without actually visiting it.

5. IE7 Open Last Closed Tab: IE7 Open Last Closed Tab is a plug-in for Internet Explorer 7 that makes “Alt-X” reopens the last closed tab. This is very useful when you accidentally close a tab that you didn’t mean to close. Instead of trying to find it in your browser history, you hit “Alt-X” and it automatically reopens in a new tab. Alt-Q will give you thumbnails of the previous tabs you’ve closed.

6. Stumble Upon: Stumble Upon is a toolbar for IE which allows you to discover thousands of web sites that match your interests. You can also write reviews about the websites, recommend and share sites with your friends network. It has been a great hit among bloggers. Stumble Upon also supports IE6.

7. Add Search Providers: Add Search Providers allows you to add search engines to the default search in IE. You can also create your own search toolbar (just follow the instructions on the page) if the desired search engine is not featured in the list.

8. Convert & download Youtube: Convert and Download YouTube add-on helps you to batch download and convert Youtube video in a click. With this you can download and convert Youtube flash video (FLV file), flash to AVI (divx, mp3), flash to MOV, flash to MP4 (iPod, PSP), flash to 3GP (mobile), flash to mp3 (audio only), converts FLV to MPEG4 more faster.


What is ActiveX?

ActiveX is a set of technologies from Microsoft that enables interactive content for the World Wide Web. Before ActiveX, Web content was static, 2-dimensional text and graphics. With ActiveX, Web sites come alive using multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisticated applications that create a user experience comparable to that of high-quality CD-ROM titles. ActiveX provides the glue that ties together a wide assortment of technology building blocks to enable these "active" Web sites.

A control using ActiveX technologies. An ActiveX control can be automatically downloaded and executed by a Web browser. ActiveX is not a programming language, but rather a set of rules for how applications should share information. Programmers can develop ActiveX controls in a variety of languages, including C, C++, Visual Basic, and Java.

An ActiveX control is similar to a Java applet. Unlike Java applets, however, ActiveX controls have full access to the Windows operating system. This gives them much more power than Java applets, but with this power comes a certain risk that the applet may damage software or data on your machine. To control this risk, Microsoft developed a registration system so that browsers can identify and authenticate an ActiveX control before downloading it. Another difference between Java applets and ActiveX controls is that Java applets can be written to run on all platforms, whereas ActiveX controls are currently limited to Windows environments. Related to ActiveX is a scripting language called VBScript that enables Web authors to embed interactive elements in HTML documents.

The BarCode-ActiveX Control has all the features necessary to easily add professional quality barcodes to any Windows application including Web pages, database reporting and labeling, product packaging, document tracking, postal bar coding and special purpose barcode labeling applications. It is an extremely easy and powerful tool that will work flawlessly with any Windows application that supports ActiveX technology including Visual Basic, Visual FoxPro, C++, Internet Explorer Web pages, Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, etc. Simply insert the Bar Code ActiveX Control into your application and specify a few properties in the properties window and your desired bar codes will be generated automatically.

Primary Benefits:

Active Web Content with Impact that will attract and retain users. Open, Cross-Platform Support on Macintosh®, Windows® and UNIX® operating systems. Familiar Tools from a wide assortment of tools and programming language vendors, including Visual Basic®, Visual C++®, Borland® Delphi®, Borland C++, Java, and Java-enabled tools. Developers can use what they know and be productive immediately. Existing Inventory of ActiveX controls available today for immediate use by Web producers. Industry Standards, with built-in support for key industry and de-facto marketplace standards, including HTML, TCP/IP, Java, COM, and others.

Keyword Importance

Google results are generally based on 4 major criteria:

  • Keyword Density
  • Keyword Prominence
  • Page Rank (Back Links)
  • Content

Keyword Density:

The density of keyword affects the ranking of your page. The higher the keyword density the higher is your rank so one should always include a 30-40 word paragraph containing key-word rich content, thus increasing the keyword density.

Keyword Prominence:

The keywords you have chosen should appear in title, Meta and H tags with some occurrence in the body also. So you should not define Google without putting the word Google in the body of the definition. This means H and P tags should go hand shaking with each other.

Page Rank (Back Links):

The more site links to your site better is the page rank of your site and more relevant your site is. Google also takes into consideration the words [or Anchor text] that appear in your back links.


Some say that the Content of your site is the king, but for me it’s actually the crown which the webmaster wears if his site has the right content. Build the content and users will be interested just be reading it. The best proof of it is you are reading till the last line of this post because it has the content for you to help you.

Thursday, May 8, 2008

Tips for Web Domain

Annual Service Fee: The fee you pay to receive Domains or Custom Mailbox service for one year. This fee is paid at the beginning of the term and no refunds are available if you choose to stop using your domain name before the year is over.

A Record: Short for address record, it maps a domain name or hostname to an IP address. You would set an A record if you wanted all traffic for a domain or hostname ( to go to a specific machine, which is identified by an IP address.

Catch-All Address: With this feature selected, any email that is sent to your domain name is forwarded to an email address. This allows you to have email addresses for yourself, departments (, promotions and other needs all forwarded to one
mailbox. It also ensures that misspelled email addresses ( still reach you. Please realize that this is only email forwarding. If you try to reply to a message, the address shown in "reply from" will be the address for your mail account. For full-featured domain mail, which enables you to reply using your new domain name address, you'll need to upgrade to Custom Mailbox.
CNAME Record: A CNAME record maps a hostname to another hostname. For example, you could set up to map to This means that users will always end up at no matter which hostname they enter in the browser.

DNS Management: DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is an Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses, which is how the Internet identifies unique hosts or computers on the network. For example, the domain name might
translate to files control the functionality of domain names and are made of records including MX, A, and CNAME. Information in these records helps to direct your personal computer to a specific web site and helps deliver email messages to the correct mail server.
Domain Extensions: Domain extensions or TLDs are the necessary suffixes that complete your domain address. At small business, you can choose from the following TLDs: .com, .net, .org, .biz, .us and .info.
Domain Forwarding: Domain forwarding allows you to point a domain name to any other destination web address or URL, which can be a domain name, a hostname, or even a file within a folder. The result is that when a visitor enters your domain name in their browser, they are automatically sent to the destination you've chosen. This feature is often used when customers purchase multiple domain names and then direct them all to the same web site.
Domain Locking: Domain locking is a security feature that prevents your domain name from being transferred to another domain registrar and ensures that no one can modify your name servers without your permission. When you sign up for a domain name, your domain is automatically locked.
Domain Name: The "" portion of the URL is the domain name. It is a unique web address that can be registered to an organization or individual. It's like having your own personal street name on the Internet. In the same way people can find your home at 1234 ABC Street, they can find you online by typing in your domain name. If you purchase one of our Business Email, Web Hosting or Merchant Solutions plans when you order your domain, your domain name registration and annual renewal fee are included at no charge.
Email Forwarding: Email forwarding will send email messages addressed to your domain name to a free mail address. For example, an email message addressed to will be delivered to
Hostname: A hostname is usually composed of a string of letters and numbers, a dot and then a domain name. For example, you might choose to set up a hostname for the shoe department within your online store, e.g. so that visitors have an easier URL to remember or bookmark (versus
ICANN: An ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is the governing body for the Internet. As a public service to Internet users, ICANN requires that every new domain must be added to the public WHOIS database, which lists detailed information about each domain owner, including your postal address, email address, and phone number. Anyone can use this database to search for a domain name and discover who owns it. With Private Domain Registration, you can replace your private contact information in the public WHOIS database with generic contact information that points to the offices of our domain name registration partner, Melbourne IT.
IP Address: An identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, could be an IP address.
Masking: Masking is an option that small business offers when you choose to forward your domain name. Forwarding your domain name means that when visitors click on a link or type a url into a browser, they are automatically directed to another site. In standard forwarding, visitors will not see the original domain name they clicked or typed in the address box at the top of their browser when they reach the destination site. Rather, the destination domain will be displayed. When you choose masked forwarding, the visitor will see the original domain name they clicked or typed in the address box at the top of their browser when they reach the destination. You may use this feature when you want to "mask" a web address that may not be user-friendly.

MX Record: Short for mail exchange record, it is an entry in a domain name database that identifies the mail server or servers that are responsible for handling email messages for that domain name. You would modify this record if you would like another server, other than one managed by small business, to handle email sent to your domain name.
Name Server: The name server translates a domain name into an IP address. The whois listing for your domain includes the name servers that host your domain name.
Name Server Modification (Redelegation): When you choose to use an existing domain name with small business services, we ask you to contact your current registrar to
change your name servers to small business's name servers. This allows us to host your domain name. Modifying your name servers to small business's doesn't mean that your domain name is managed by our registrar. If you change your name servers, your domain is still managed by your original registrar and you will continue to pay your annual registration renewal fees to them. With the Domains product, we also allow you to modify your name servers so that you can continue managing your domain name through us, but have your domain hosted elsewhere.
Private Domain Registration: When you register a domain using regular domain registration, your contact information automatically appears in a public database of domain owners, called WHOIS. Anyone can look up this information in WHOIS and use it to send you spam. You can help protect your privacy and reduce the likelihood of receiving spam with Private Domain Registration.
Starter Web Page: A starter web page is a bonus feature that you receive when you purchase a small business plan that includes a domain. The starter web page can replace the default "Under Construction" page and act as a placeholder until you decide to build a full web site or store at your domain. A starter web page allows you to post a short, customized message about yourself or your business and choose from a set of standard page templates. You cannot edit these templates, add pages, or include your own graphics.
Under Construction Page: When you register a domain name, we automatically create a placeholder web page for you. Your visitors will see this default "Under Construction" page when they go to your domain until you replace it. This page lets visitors know that you have not yet begun building your site and includes links to advertising-supported search results. When you're ready, you can create your own placeholder page by adding your own text and contact information to one of our predesigned templates. This starter web page is a bonus feature of your small business plan.
WHOIS: WHOIS refers to the public databases that store contact and technical information for domain names. Each domain registrar is required to maintain a WHOIS database for the domains they "host." These databases are accessible by anyone, 24 hours a day, and include information such as the date the domain name was registered, the date the domain name expires, the name servers, and the domain name holder's name, address, phone number, and email address.

Tips for Secure Site

At the very least, an attack could disable your Website and embarrass your company. At the very worst, an intruder could shut down your online store and make off with your customers´ credit card numbers and personal data. No site is absolutely safe from attacks; if you're plugged into the Internet, there's always a chance that an intruder will find a way into your Web server.

There are some simple, commonsense steps you can take to help deter attacks and limit damages:

1. Use a firewall to shield your network. This is perhaps the single most important step you can take to protect yourself against crackers. If you don't know what a firewall is, or if you don't know how to select and configure one, hire someone who does. Many administrators keep their companies' Web servers separate from the rest of the network to provide extra protection against break-ins.

2. Require good passwords. As a rule, people shouldn't use dictionary words, names or other personal data for their passwords--they're too easy for an intruder to guess.

3. Limit server access. Only people who really need it should have access to the server. Even then, carefully control each user's level of access. And make sure you delete inactive users as quickly as possible.

4. Turn off unused services on your Web server. Consider getting rid of FTP, SendMail, gopher, NFS, finger and any other services that might help an intruder break into your server. Also remove shells and interpreters you don't need and delete unnecessary directories. For example, if you don't run Perl-based CGI scripts, remove the Perl interpreter from your server. Keep a complete backup of your website. And keep it on a separate, secure computer. If a vandal does manage to destroy or deface your Website, you'll be able to get a backup version up more quickly.

5. Check your system and Web logs for suspicious activity. Programs such as Tripwire for Unix systems and Internet Security Scanner for Windows NT can monitor your log files and alert you to any unusual behavior. Unusual log file activity might be the first--and only--warning that an intruder is trying to break into your system.

6. Keep your software up to date. Microsoft and all of the Unix vendors periodically issue updates and security patches to their operating systems and Web servers. Understand that different operating systems and Web servers offer different levels of security, and even the best software might not be secure when you buy it off the shelf.

7. Understand how to maintain your server and network. If you don't, hire someone who does or contract with a professional hosting service.

8. Get the right equipment and advice before opening an e-store. E-commerce sites require special protection because they handle customer credit card numbers and other sensitive information. If you open an online store, you'll need a server that supports encrypted connections and additional security measures. When you set up a commerce site, hire a consultant who specializes in Web security issues or pay for a hosting service to do the job for you.

Web Host


To create a website for your business, you need to find a place to store your files. One choice is to let your Internet Service Provider (ISP) host your Website--most ISPs provide some amount of server space as part of a standard dialup Internet access account. An advantage to this is that you won't have to pay extra for hosting services, although some ISPs can't provide the bandwidth or the reliability needed for a fully functional business site.

True Web hosting companies resemble ISPs in that they also provide servers connected to the Internet. But good Web hosts invest in more powerful servers and faster, more direct connections to the Internet. A Web hosting service is also likely to offer other features that you can't get from a regular ISP, such as special commerce servers that provide additional security
for online transactions.

Choose Web Host:

Server space. Initially, 10MB of disk space on a server should be enough for a typical business site. If your site has lots of graphics or multimedia files, you may need much more room; many hosts offer 100MB or more of disk space at reasonable rates. Also, find out whether email, log files and other "overhead" files count against your space limit--once you exceed your disk quota, the hosting service will charge a penalty. It's always better to have too much space than too little.

1. Traffic. Your host may impose a limit on how much traffic your site can attract each month before you have to pay a surcharge. You don't want an increasingly popular site to suddenly become a financial liability, so look for a plan that offers unlimited traffic or at least low over-limit charges.

2. Support. Make sure you can get technical support during the hours you're most likely to need it. When you evaluate a hosting service, call its support lines a few times to see how long it takes to get through.

3. Other Features. Make sure you can get your own domain name ( rather than one incorporating the name of your host ( Most hosting sites will register a domain name for you at no extra charge (although you'll still have to pay the standard registration fee). Also check into how many email addresses you get and
whether they support aliases, which allow you to set up addresses such as Ask about programs for managing mailing lists and generating automatic email responses.

You want to find out about the visitors to your site--what links they followed to get there, which pages they view most often--so make sure that your host is equipped to track and provide that information. If you or your Web developer uses Web authoring and management software (such as Microsoft FrontPage) that offers nonstandard features, look for a host that can support that software. And if your site provides interactive functions such as forms or surveys, or if you allow online transactions, you need to ask about features such as CGI script and e-commerce support.

Buyer Beware:

Just as you need to make sure your host can provide the features you need, you want to be equally careful not to pay for ones you don't. If you don't plan to take credit card orders online, for example, you don't need to pay for secure socket layer (SSL) or other special security features. Once you've narrowed your list of Web hosting candidates, ask each service you're considering for a list of the sites it houses. Visit those sites to see how quickly the pages load, especially sites with pages of similar size and complexity to yours. You can also try sending email to the Webmasters at the sites to ask for their opinions of the hosting company. Internet mailing lists, computer user groups and professional associations are other good sources of information on finding the right Web host for your business.

Web Hosting Glossary

Glossary Terms for Web Hosting:

  1. Application Server: A type of computer program that provides some basic functionality that can be called upon by customized applications.

  2. Bandwidth: Refers to the amount of data that can be transferred during a given period of time.

  3. Bulletin Board: An online application that supports threaded conversations among users. Users can browse through previously posted messages or add their own messages.

  4. Burstable: Term used to indicate the maximum amount of bandwidth that can be supported during a short period of time.

  5. Cage: An enclosed area found at some Web hosting companies that is used to host the computer equipment needed to maintain a Website.

  6. Chat: Community software that allows users to message instantly to one another.

  7. Cold Fusion: A brand of application software used to develop interactive Websites. Cold Fusion is produced by Allaire Corp.

  8. Co-located Server: Type of site hosting where high speed Internet access is provided for a Web server that you provide and set up. Generally, the ISP is responsible for making sure the connection is up, while you are responsible for making sure the site works.

  9. Common Gateway Interface Script (CGI Script): A type of script that results in an action based on the user's input.

  10. Cookie: A type of file that is deposited onto a user's computer and used to track a user's activities on the Website.

  11. Database Server: A computer that is designed to store and run a database.

  12. Data Center: A building used to house all the equipment and telecommunications lines necessary to support Websites.

  13. Dedicated Line: A type of telecommunications service that involves allocating a specified amount of bandwidth to a given location.

  14. Dedicated Server: A type of Website hosting where the service provides site hosting equipment for the exclusive use by the customer. It may or may not include the appropriate software as well.

  15. Domain Name: A text-based address used to identify a Website. Domain names provide a user-friendly way to access Websites rather than having to enter in an IP address.

  16. File Transfer Protocol (FTP): A standard that allows for the transfer of files between two computers. FTP programs are often used to manage file transfers to Websites.

  17. Firewall: A software - or hardware - based solution that is designed to prevent unauthorized access to the Website.

  18. Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that provides Internet access.

  19. IP Address: A code used to identify the location of a computer on a network. IP addresses consist of four sets of numbers that are separated by periods, with each number ranging from 0 to 255. The domain name system translates domain names into these addresses, which are represented by a series of numbers looking something like this:

  20. Point of Presence (POP): A physical location maintained by an Internet service provider to provide a local connection to the Internet.

  21. Rack: Equipment used to house computing equipment.

  22. Secure Pages: A type of Web page that has been protected so that the information entered or being displayed on that page can only be viewed by the visitor to that page.

  23. Secure Server: A type of Web server that can protect the display and transmission of information over the Internet by supporting major security standards like SSL.

  24. Shared Hosting: A type of Website hosting where the hosting service provides all the hardware and software necessary to connect to the Internet.

  25. Shopping Cart: A commerce technology that allows users to purchase a specified item from a Website.

  26. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A standard used to send e-mail.

  27. Solaris: A UNIX based operating environment developed by Sun Microsystems.

  28. Static Page: A web page that consists of a distinct file that resides on a web server.

  29. T1, T3 Lines: High-speed telecommunications links. T1 lines convey data at speeds up to 1.544 Megabits per second. T3 lines support data speeds of 43 Megabits per second. They can be used to connect a user to an Internet service provider (typically T1), or to connect an Internet service provider to other locations on the Internet (T3).

  30. Telnet: A type of computer program that provides access to remotely located computers. Control of that remote computer occurs through commands entered via text.

  31. UNIX: A type of operating system often used in environments requiring robust applications such as site hosting. Multiple versions of UNIX, including Linux, exist.

  32. Virtual Domain Name: A shared hosting service feature that allows companies to utilize a domain name as their Website address. Companies that do not offer this will require that the hosting company's domain name be part of your Website address.

  33. Web Server: A computer that has been set up to deliver Web pages.

  34. Website A discrete collection of pages that can be accessed via the World Wide Web. Websites consist of multiple files that can either be viewed by a browser or provide some back-end functionality.